Síntomas de la insuficiencia renal / Signs and symptoms of acute kidney failure

MÁS COMUNES EN LAS PERSONAS QUE LO PADECEN

La insuficiencia renal es el nombre con que se describe la afección cuando uno o ambos riñones no pueden actuar de la manera correcta.

Si estos pequeños órganos no funcionan de la forma adecuada, el organismo ve un aumento de toxinas y residuo celular en el torrente sanguíneo, ya que estos no logran ser evacuados por la orina.

También puede haber una disminución en el conteo de glóbulos rojos en la médula ósea y en la hormona que estimula la fuerza de los huesos.

Al no ser un diagnóstico en sí, pero sí una descripción del estado de actividad de los riñones, la insuficiencia se mide en etapas. La más grave es la terminal, y ocurre cuando el daño es irreversible y potencialmente mortal.

Afortunadamente, el avance en los trasplantes de riñón y la diálisis, podría permitir que el paciente pueda vivir muchos años más.

¿Cuáles son los síntomas de la insuficiencia renal?

Se cree que todos los males asociados a estos órganos producen dolor lumbar, pero no es así.

“Es un mito que los riñones duelen. Los riñones son órganos que tienen muy poca inervación (cantidad de nervios) y cuando molestan es porque hay una infección o un cálculo, pero por insuficiencia renal no duelen”, explica el sitio web de Clínica Davila.

Según Clínica Mayo, los síntomas más comunes entre las personas con insuficiencia renal son:

Fatiga
Retención de líquido que produce hinchazón en piernas y pies
Disminución del volumen de orina
Falta de aire
Desorientación
Náuseas
Debilidad
Ritmo cardíaco irregular
Dolor en el pecho
Convulsiones en los casos más severos
Cuando se sienta alguno de estos síntomas, se debe asistir de inmediato a un médico, ya que solo en días se podría agravar la condición, derivando en la hospitalización.

Signs and symptoms of acute kidney failure

Decreased urine output, although occasionally urine output remains normal.
Fluid retention, causing swelling in your legs, ankles or feet.
Shortness of breath.
Fatigue.
Confusion.
Nausea.
Weakness.
Irregular heartbeat.

Causes
Acute kidney failure can occur when:

You have a condition that slows blood flow to your kidneys
You experience direct damage to your kidneys
Your kidneys’ urine drainage tubes (ureters) become blocked and wastes can’t leave your body through your urine
Impaired blood flow to the kidneys
Diseases and conditions that may slow blood flow to the kidneys and lead to kidney injury include:

Blood or fluid loss
Blood pressure medications
Heart attack
Heart disease
Infection
Liver failure
Use of aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others), naproxen sodium (Aleve, others) or related drugs
Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis)
Severe burns
Severe dehydration
Damage to the kidneys
These diseases, conditions and agents may damage the kidneys and lead to acute kidney failure:

Blood clots in the veins and arteries in and around the kidneys
Cholesterol deposits that block blood flow in the kidneys
Glomerulonephritis (gloe-mer-u-loe-nuh-FRY-tis), inflammation of the tiny filters in the kidneys (glomeruli)
Hemolytic uremic syndrome, a condition that results from premature destruction of red blood cells
Infection, such as with the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
Lupus, an immune system disorder causing glomerulonephritis
Medications, such as certain chemotherapy drugs, antibiotics and dyes used during imaging tests
Scleroderma, a group of rare diseases affecting the skin and connective tissues
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, a rare blood disorder
Toxins, such as alcohol, heavy metals and cocaine
Muscle tissue breakdown (rhabdomyolysis) that leads to kidney damage caused by toxins from muscle tissue destruction
Breakdown of tumor cells (tumor lysis syndrome), which leads to the release of toxins that can cause kidney injury
Urine blockage in the kidneys
Diseases and conditions that block the passage of urine out of the body (urinary obstructions) and can lead to acute kidney injury include:

Bladder cancer
Blood clots in the urinary tract
Cervical cancer
Colon cancer
Enlarged prostate
Kidney stones
Nerve damage involving the nerves that control the bladder
Prostate cancer
Risk factors
Acute kidney failure almost always occurs in connection with another medical condition or event. Conditions that can increase your risk of acute kidney failure include:

Being hospitalized, especially for a serious condition that requires intensive care
Advanced age
Blockages in the blood vessels in your arms or legs (peripheral artery disease)
Diabetes
High blood pressure
Heart failure
Kidney diseases
Liver diseases
Certain cancers and their treatments
Complications
Potential complications of acute kidney failure include:

Fluid buildup. Acute kidney failure may lead to a buildup of fluid in your lungs, which can cause shortness of breath.
Chest pain. If the lining that covers your heart (pericardium) becomes inflamed, you may experience chest pain.
Muscle weakness. When your body’s fluids and electrolytes — your body’s blood chemistry — are out of balance, muscle weakness can result.
Permanent kidney damage. Occasionally, acute kidney failure causes permanent loss of kidney function, or end-stage renal disease. People with end-stage renal disease require either permanent dialysis — a mechanical filtration process used to remove toxins and wastes from the body — or a kidney transplant to survive.
Death. Acute kidney failure can lead to loss of kidney function and, ultimately, death.
Prevention
Acute kidney failure is often difficult to predict or prevent. But you may reduce your risk by taking care of your kidneys. Try to:

Pay attention to labels when taking over-the-counter (OTC) pain medications. Follow the instructions for OTC pain medications, such as aspirin, acetaminophen (Tylenol, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) and naproxen sodium (Aleve, others). Taking too much of these medications may increase your risk of kidney injury. This is especially true if you have pre-existing kidney disease, diabetes or high blood pressure.
Work with your doctor to manage kidney and other chronic conditions. If you have kidney disease or another condition that increases your risk of acute kidney failure, such as diabetes or high blood pressure, stay on track with treatment goals and follow your doctor’s recommendations to manage your condition.
Make a healthy lifestyle a priority. Be active; eat a sensible, balanced diet; and drink alcohol only in moderation — if at all.